What Are Full-range Speakers, Crossover Speakers, And Coaxial Speakers?

- Oct 16, 2020-

In the speaker system, speakers (speakers or speakers) are mainly divided into two categories, one is full-range speakers, and the other is crossover speakers. So what is a full-range speaker? What is a crossover speaker? What are their advantages, disadvantages and differences?


About full-range speakers



Full-range speaker: It is a speaker made of only one full-range speaker. There is only one speaker. In fact, one speaker cannot cover all frequency bands. Generally speaking, full-frequency is actually a wide frequency, that is, the frequency range is relatively wide. The previous full-range speakers covered a frequency range of 200-10000Hz. With the continuous advancement of acoustic technology in recent years, the general full-range speakers can now reach a frequency range of 50-25000Hz, and the low frequency of some speakers can go down to 30Hz.


The frequency range that the human ear can hear is 20-20000Hz. The full-frequency speaker can basically cover all the sound of the human ear can hear, but unfortunately, the current full-frequency speaker on the market, although it is Full range, in fact, most of its frequencies are concentrated in the mid-range range, and the expressive power of heavy bass and treble are slightly weaker, so the sound heard is relatively flat, and the three-dimensional feeling is not so strong.


Features/advantages of full-range speakers: point sound source, so the phase is accurate; the timbre of each frequency band tends to be the same, which is easy to bring better sound field, imaging degree, instrument separation and level. Due to the strong expressiveness in the mid-frequency stage, it happens that most of the human voices are mainly mid-frequency, so the full-range speaker is very suitable for listening to the human voice, and the distortion rate of the ear is low, and the human voice is quite full and natural.


Disadvantages of full-range speakers: The design and final performance of each frequency band will be restricted because of the need to meet the needs of different frequency bands. The extension of the high and low frequencies is relatively limited, and the transient and dynamic are relatively compromised.




About crossover speakers


A crossover speaker means that its frequency range is staged and the signal frequency is more focused. Crossover speakers are generally built-in dual-frequency speakers or tri-frequency speakers or more. Why is the frequency of a crossover speaker more focused? In addition to the number of speakers, there is a crossover in the crossover speaker. How does the crossover work? Take a three-way speaker, this crossover can send the bass part to the woofer dedicated to the low frequency, the midrange to the midrange speaker, and the treble to the tweeter. In this way, each speaker performs its own duties and exerts its own advantages, which can make the extension of the high and low frequencies wider, so that it can usually cover a wider frequency range than the full-range speaker.


Features/advantages of crossover speakers: Each frequency band is sounded by an independent unit, so each unit can work in the best condition. The extension of high and low frequencies is easier and better. The independent intermediate frequency unit can bring extremely high playback quality, and the overall electroacoustic conversion efficiency is high.


Disadvantages of cross-frequency speakers: Since there are more units in cross-frequency speakers, there is a certain tone difference and phase difference between each other. Then, the crossover network introduces new distortion to the system. The sound field, image resolution, separation and level will be more easily affected, the sound field of the sound is not so pure, and the overall tone color will also be deviated.



About coaxial speakers


Coaxial speaker: It is a special form of crossover speaker. The tweeter of the speaker is cleverly placed in the center of the mid-bass diaphragm, so that the mid-bass unit and the tweeter are located on the same axis. The front looks like two Concentric circles, so it can ensure that the acoustic center of the high and low frequencies are the same point, so it is called a coaxial speaker.


We often hear friends confuse coaxial speakers with full-range speakers. Of course, these two types of speakers have their points in common. They both construct a point sound source, but the structure of coaxial speakers is different. The two speakers are in crossover. Status has its own division of labor, respectively responsible for the operation of the treble and mid-bass.




Features/advantages of coaxial speakers: It can be said that the design structure and form of coaxial speakers are really painstaking. It not only has the characteristics of high phase fidelity of full-range speakers, and realizes the output in the form of standard point sound sources. More natural sound. At the same time, in terms of the sense of hearing, it also has the strong expressive power of the crossover speaker in the high and low frequencies. The bass is realistic and cohesive, the energy density is large, and the transient state is better. The sound level is more distinct and the sense of detail is more prominent. .


Disadvantages of coaxial speakers: Although coaxial speakers have so many advantages, they also have defects, because their high and low coils are on the same axis and share a magnetic circuit, so the two voice coils will generate a certain amount of mutual The interference may cause the two voice coils to not move correctly, which makes the sound less smooth and balanced. Although the coaxial speaker solves the problem of phase fidelity, the sound performance has not been better improved. The other shortcomings of its ordinary crossover speakers still exist on the coaxial speaker.


to sum up


To talk about the difference between these two types of speakers, I saw a relatively vivid analogy on the Internet. A full-range speaker is like one person doing all the work, while a cross-frequency speaker arranges different tasks for different people. Because each person has a different focus on their abilities, if these people are assigned to work that suits them and they all work in the same direction, they will naturally work beautifully and more efficiently. But if it is not for concerted efforts, the crowds will interfere with each other and become a burden. The full-range speaker does not need to take such risks, and the cost is relatively low.


The above has introduced some knowledge about the difference between full-range speakers and crossover speakers. The key to determining their sound and sound effects is their built-in full-range speakers and crossover speakers. However, each of these speakers has its own advantages and disadvantages and the value of existence. We cannot simply judge which is better. Everyone focuses on different sound effects. All these theories can only be used as a reference. If you really want to To choose a good speaker, I think only my ears have the most say.