The Structure Of The Speaker

- Aug 03, 2020-

The loudspeaker is a kind of transducer device that transforms the electric signal into the sound signal. The performance of the loudspeaker has a great influence on the sound quality. The speaker is the weakest component in audio equipment, and it is the most important component for audio effects. There are many types of speakers, and the prices vary greatly. Audio electric energy uses electromagnetic, piezoelectric or electrostatic effects to make the cone or diaphragm vibrate and resonate (resonate) with the surrounding air to produce sound.

Low-end plastic speakers have no sound quality at all because of their thin cabinets and inability to overcome resonance (some well-designed plastic speakers are far better than poor-quality wooden speakers); wooden speakers reduce the sound stain caused by cabinet resonance. The sound quality is generally better than plastic speakers.

Usually multimedia speakers are designed with a two-unit two-way frequency, a smaller speaker is responsible for the output of the mid-to-high range, and another larger speaker is responsible for the output of the mid-bass.

The material of these two speakers should be considered when selecting speakers: The tweeter of multimedia active speakers is now mainly soft dome (in addition to the titanium dome used for analog sound sources, etc.), it can reduce high frequencies in conjunction with digital sound sources The coldness of the signal gives people a cold, slender, and ethereal feeling. Multimedia speakers now have soft dome tops such as better quality silk films and lower cost PV films.

The bass unit determines the characteristics of the sound of the speaker. It is relatively important to choose. The most common ones are the following: paper cones, paper cones, paper-based wool cones, and compacted cones.


The paper cone has natural sound, cheap, better rigidity, lighter material and high sensitivity. The disadvantage is that it has poor moisture resistance and is difficult to control during manufacturing. However, the top HiFi system made of paper cones abound, because the sound output is very average. Good reducibility.

Bulletproof cloth has a wider frequency response and lower distortion. It is the first choice for those who love strong bass. The disadvantages are high cost, complicated production process, low sensitivity, and poor light music effect.

The wool woven basin has a soft texture. It is very good for soft and light music, but the bass effect is not good, and it lacks strength and shock.

PP (polypropylene) basin, which is widely popular in high-end speakers, has good consistency and low distortion, and its performance is remarkable in all aspects. In addition, there are fiber diaphragms and composite material diaphragms that are rarely used in popular speakers due to their high prices.

The loudspeaker size is naturally the bigger the better, the large-caliber woofer can have better performance in the low frequency part, which can be selected in the purchase. Speakers made with high-performance speakers mean lower transient distortion and better sound quality. The speakers of common multimedia speakers' woofers are usually between 3 and 5 inches. Speakers made with high-performance speakers also mean lower transient distortion and better sound quality.

Our most common electric cone speaker. Electric cone loudspeakers are often referred to as paper cone loudspeakers in the past. Although the diaphragm is still dominated by paper cones in 2014, many polymer material and metal diaphragms have appeared at the same time. The conical loudspeaker is called the name symbol. Actually. The cone loudspeaker is roughly composed of magnetic circuit system (permanent magnet, core column, magnetic conductive plate), vibration system (paper cone, voice coil) and support auxiliary system (centering support piece, basin stand, cushion edge), etc. Partial composition.

1. Voice coil: The voice coil is the driving unit of the cone-shaped paper cone speaker. It is wound on the paper tube in two layers with very thin copper wires. Generally there are dozens of turns, also called coils, placed on the magnetic core column and In the magnetic gap formed by the magnetic conductive plate. The voice coil and the paper cone are fixed together. When the sound current signal passes through the voice coil, the vibration of the voice coil drives the paper cone to vibrate.

2. Paper cone: There are many kinds of materials used in the cone diaphragm of the cone cone speaker. Generally, there are two types of natural fiber and man-made fiber. Natural fibers often use cotton, wood, wool, spun silk, etc., while man-made fibers use rayon, nylon, and glass fibers. Since the paper cone is the sound radiating device of the loudspeaker, it determines the sound reproduction performance of the loudspeaker to a large extent, so no matter which kind of paper cone, it is required to be light and rigid, and not deformed due to changes in ambient temperature and humidity. .

3. Folding ring: The folding ring is designed to ensure that the paper cone moves along the axial direction of the speaker and restrict the lateral movement, and at the same time it plays a role in blocking the air flow between the front and rear of the paper cone. In addition to the commonly used paper cone materials, the material of the folding ring also uses plastic, natural rubber, etc., to be bonded to the paper cone by hot pressing.

4. Centering support piece: The centering support piece is used to support the joint part of the voice coil and the paper cone to ensure that it is vertical and not skewed. There are many concentric rings on the centering support plate, so that the voice coil can move up and down freely in the magnetic gap without lateral movement, and it can ensure that the voice coil does not collide with the magnetic conductive plate. The dust cover on the centering support piece is to prevent external dust from falling into the magnetic gap, to avoid friction between dust and the voice coil, and abnormal sound from the speaker.

The general loudspeaker is composed of: magnet, frame, centering support piece, moulded ring cone type paper cone.