Full-range speakers: There is only one speaker per box, this speaker is responsible for sound output in all frequency ranges
The advantages are:
1. Since the sound is emitted by one unit, there is almost no phase distortion. The so-called phase distortion can be understood as whether the sound actually made by the speaker and the sound that should be made are synchronized in time. If it is synchronized, what you hear is the most authentic sound without phase distortion. If it is not synchronized, the slight feeling is that the sound is a bit loose, similar to the feeling of a small chorus. If it is serious, the sound is a little messy. Extreme phase distortion will cause people to feel dizzy and tinnitus swell.
2. Since the sound materials of the speakers are the same, the sound of the full-range speakers is very consistent. The so-called timbre is the sound stain brought by the material of the speaker itself. The best speakers should not have timbre. However, the laws of physics have led to no matter how sophisticated the technology is, it can only minimize the noise caused by the speaker material. Therefore, the units of different materials feel different. For example, the warm and delicate vocals of paper cone speakers, the metal cone speakers feel clear and beautiful.
3. Because there is only one vocal point, the image formation and cohesion of the sound are very good, and there is no interference of the sound of different units.
The disadvantages are also obvious:
1. It is difficult to take into account the frequency range of the high, middle and low three-band. It is necessary to make a full frequency with good high, middle and low frequencies, and the cost is very high.
2. Transient performance is limited, even if the high, medium and low frequencies are completed, its best performance power range is relatively narrow.
Cross-frequency speakers: Each box has two or more speakers, and each speaker is responsible for the sound output of the corresponding frequency range through the frequency divider. Treble is responsible for treble, midrange is responsible for midrange, and bass is responsible for bass.
1. Each unit works in a relatively narrow frequency region, and the requirements for the speaker unit are reduced. Conversely, the unit can play its best state in its dedicated frequency domain.
2. Due to the above reasons, the frequency range of the whole box can be easily made wider. And the transient performance is also very good, which means that the power range of each unit's best sound performance is relatively wide.
There are also many disadvantages:
1. The consistency of the timbre is difficult to grasp, because the diaphragm material of the tweeter and woofer is usually different.
2. The phase distortion is large, which requires very high technology to reduce the phase distortion, but it is difficult to eliminate anyway.
Reason 1: Even if the crossover is not used, the sound of multiple units cannot be completely consistent because of the material and size, so it is difficult to fully synchronize the sound.
Reason 2: The introduction of the frequency divider causes greater phase distortion and some other distortions. It takes time to charge and discharge the capacitor, and time is the most fundamental factor that causes phase distortion.
3. The frequency is difficult to connect naturally.
4. The sound waves generated between multiple units will inevitably have more or less sound wave interference.
5. The separation of the speaker unit positions makes it difficult to hear the full picture of the sound in near-field listening. Perhaps there are many high-pitched sounds and perhaps many low-pitched sounds.
Briefly summarize the characteristics of the two boxes:
1. Full frequency box: It has good sound quality, but it needs a high cost to obtain a wide range of frequency domain and transient.
2. Crossover box: You can get a wide range of frequency domain and transient performance at a low cost, but you also need to pay a high cost to achieve a good sound quality.
If there is a perfect full-range speaker, there seems to be no need for a crossover box. However, making a near-perfect full-range speaker seems harder than making a near-perfect crossover box.
The world is so contradictory. If you choose A, you are missing B. If you choose B, you are missing A. However, these contradictions happen to make everyone have fun and pursuit.