Full-range Speakers And Crossover Speakers

- Aug 05, 2020-

Most of the time, most people don’t know that there is a full-range speaker. Generally speaking, each speaker has two or three speaker units. Many people even think that the more speakers, the better. Of course, if you have a deeper understanding of audio, you still know full-range speakers. This article will talk about the respective characteristics and advantages and disadvantages of full-range speakers and crossover speakers.


At first, when the speaker was invented, it was full-frequency. Later, in order to better expand the frequency range of the speaker, it gradually evolved into a component frequency. Cross-frequency speakers are currently the mainstream, but due to the development of material technology and magnet technology, it seems that full-range speakers are gradually being respected again. So what is the difference between them?


Its advantages are:


1. Since the sound is emitted by one unit, there is almost no phase distortion. The so-called phase distortion can be understood as whether the sound actually emitted by the speaker and the sound that should be emitted are synchronized in time. If synchronized, what you hear is the most original sound without phase distortion. If it is not synchronized, the slight feeling is that the sound is a little scattered, similar to the feeling of a small chorus. If it is serious, the sound is a little messy, and the extreme phase distortion will cause people to feel a little dizzy and swollen tinnitus.


2. Since the sound materials of the speakers are the same, the sound of the full-range speakers is very consistent. The so-called tone color is the sound dyeing caused by the material of the speaker itself. The best speaker should not have a tone. However, the laws of physics lead to no matter how sophisticated the technology is, it can only minimize the sound pollution caused by the speaker material. Therefore, units of different materials feel different. For example, the warm and delicate voice of a paper cone horn, and a metal cone horn feels clear and beautiful.


3. Since there is only one sound point, the sound imaging and cohesion are very good, and there is no interference of different unit sounds.


Its disadvantages are also obvious:


1. It is difficult to balance the frequency range of high, middle and low frequencies. It is costly to make a full frequency with good high, middle and low frequencies.


2. The transient performance is limited. Even if the high, middle and low frequencies are done well, its best performance power range is relatively narrow.


Crystal dust D3 passive full-range speaker

Crossover speaker: Each box has two or more speakers, and each speaker is responsible for the sound output of the corresponding frequency range through the crossover. The treble is responsible for the treble, the midrange is responsible for the midrange, and the bass is responsible for the bass.


Its advantages:


1. Each unit works in a relatively narrow frequency region, and the requirements for the speaker unit are reduced. On the contrary, the unit can perform its best in the exclusive frequency domain for which it is responsible.


2. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, the frequency range of the whole box can be easily made wide. And the transient performance is also very good, which means that the power range of the best sound performance of each unit is relatively wide.


There are also many disadvantages:


1. Tone consistency is more difficult to grasp, because usually the diaphragm materials of the tweeter and woofer are different.


2. The phase distortion is large, and it requires very high technology to reduce the phase distortion, but it is difficult to eliminate it anyway.


Reason 1: Even without a crossover, the sound of multiple units cannot be completely the same in material and size, so it is difficult to completely synchronize the sound.


Reason 2: The introduction of the frequency divider causes greater phase distortion and other distortions. It always takes time to charge and discharge a capacitor, and time is the most fundamental factor leading to phase distortion.


3. The frequency is difficult to connect with nature.


4. The sound waves generated between multiple units will inevitably cause more or less sound wave interference.


5. The separation of the position of the speaker unit makes it difficult to hear the full picture of the sound in near-field listening, maybe there are many high pitches, maybe many bass.


Briefly summarize the characteristics of the two boxes:


1. Full frequency box: It has a good sound quality, but it requires a high cost to obtain a wide range of frequency domain and transients.


2. Crossover box: A wide range of frequency domain and transient performance can be obtained at a low cost, but it also requires a high cost to achieve a good sound quality.


If there is a perfect full-range speaker, the crossover box seems unnecessary. However, it seems more difficult to make a near-perfect full-range speaker than a near-perfect crossover box.


The world is so contradictory. If you choose A, you will lose B. If you choose B, you will lose A. However, these contradictions happen to make everyone have fun and pursuit.